9/11

I would like to dedicate this blog post to all those who lost their lives in the terrorist attacks and also to their families. Nine years back United States of America was shattered, when four American planes where hijacked. Two of them where crashed into the two towers of world trade center, third was crashed into the Pentagon and the last one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania.Both buildings of world trade center collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others.
There were a total of 2,996 deaths which include the 19 hijackers and 2,977 victims. 246 people died on the four planes, 2,606 in New York City in the towers and 125 at the Pentagon. All the deaths in the attacks were civilians except for 55 military personnel killed at the Pentagon.

The World Trade Center is now being rebuilt. Its construction started in September, 2006. The new World Trade Center (WTC) will build a brighter, more vibrant future for downtown New York with superior commercial space, a modernized and more convenient transportation system, and cultural and highly commemorative destinations.

The WTC plan includes Five new skyscrapers, National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center, World Trade Center Transportation Hub, Retail Complex and Performing Arts Center.
At the site of the two buildings, a memorial is to be build which will mark the absence of the buildings. The memorial consists of a park at street level with two recessed square pools located 30 feet below street level, fed by waterfalls along the walls. At the center of the pools are recessed squares into which the water flows. The names of the victims will be inscribed on parapets surrounding the pools at street level.
The National September 11 Memorial Museum will be located 70 feet below ground. An admission fee is under consideration. The museum will feature interactive exhibits that are designed to teach visitors about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and February 26, 1993. The largest asset of the museum will be the exposed slurry wall, which held back the Hudson River and remained standing after the attacks.

MAY THEIR SOULS REST IN PEACE!

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IMDOC

Imdoc!! You must be thinking what is doc????

It actually means doctor. Now i know, what is coming in your head hospitals,surgery,medicines…..blah..blah blah!!!Whatever you are thinking is kind of true abt this blog….but give ur thought a full stop!!Because, its not only about being a medico….Its more abt college life,technology,entrances n most importantly about fullfilling your dreams!!!

So keep following…………

The World as I see it by Albert Einstein

I came across an astounding essay by Albert Einstein, “The World as I see it”. There are many things that one can acquire from this great essay by one of the greatest man this earth has ever seen….

“How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn; for what purpose he knows not, though he sometimes thinks he senses it. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people — first of all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness is wholly dependent, and then for the many, unknown to us, to whose destinies we are bound by the ties of sympathy. A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving…

“I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves — this critical basis I call the ideal of a pigsty. The ideals that have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind, without the occupation with the objective world, the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors, life would have seemed empty to me. The trite objects of human efforts — possessions, outward success, luxury — have always seemed to me contemptible.

“My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. I am truly a ‘lone traveler’ and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties, I have never lost a sense of distance and a need for solitude…”

“My political ideal is democracy. Let every man be respected as an individual and no man idolized. It is an irony of fate that I myself have been the recipient of excessive admiration and reverence from my fellow-beings, through no fault, and no merit, of my own. The cause of this may well be the desire, unattainable for many, to understand the few ideas to which I have with my feeble powers attained through ceaseless struggle. I am quite aware that for any organization to reach its goals, one man must do the thinking and directing and generally bear the responsibility. But the led must not be coerced, they must be able to choose their leader. In my opinion, an autocratic system of coercion soon degenerates; force attracts men of low morality… The really valuable thing in the pageant of human life seems to me not the political state, but the creative, sentient individual, the personality; it alone creates the noble and the sublime, while the herd as such remains dull in thought and dull in feeling.

“This topic brings me to that worst outcrop of herd life, the military system, which I abhor… This plague-spot of civilization ought to be abolished with all possible speed. Heroism on command, senseless violence, and all the loathsome nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism — how passionately I hate them!

“The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of true art and true science. Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed. It was the experience of mystery — even if mixed with fear — that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which only in their most primitive forms are accessible to our minds: it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true religiosity. In this sense, and only this sense, I am a deeply religious man… I am satisfied with the mystery of life’s eternity and with a knowledge, a sense, of the marvelous structure of existence — as well as the humble attempt to understand even a tiny portion of the Reason that manifests itself in nature.”

The website http://www.aip.org has a great collection of many other essays from some of the greatest men and women. You must visit this website for more of such essays.

The Medical Song!!

Every Medical student is tired of taking history, cramming drug names, remembering symptoms,diseases etc.So, am i…

So here is a song by “The Amateur Transplants named “Finals countdown” that tells our story.Check it out!!!

Fever!

Fever which is also known as pyrexia is an increase of more than 1°C or any rise in maximal temperature.

Normal temperature is between 36°C  and 37.5°C with diurnal variation of 1°C with lowest temperature at 2-4 am and maximum temperature in afternoon.

Measuring of temperature

The body temperature is measured  with a mercury thermometer, which is kept in position for about a minute.

Usually temperature is recorded in the axilla. However, it can be measured in mouth, in ear and in rectum.

Severity of fever

  1. Mild Fever               37.2°C – 37.8°C
  2. Moderate Fever     37.8°C – 39.4°C
  3. High Fever               39.4°C- 40.5°C
  4. Hyperpyrexia          >40.5°C

Types of Fever

  1. Continuous Fever: Temperature remains above normal throughout the day and does not fluctuate more than 1 °C in 24 hours, e.g. lobar pneumonia, typhoid, urinary tract infection,brucellosis, typhus, brucellosis, etc.
    1. Remittent Fever: Temperature remains above normal throughout the day and fluctuates more than 1 °C in 24 hours. This is most common, e.g., typhoid, Infective endocarditis, etc

    Intermittent Fever: Elevated temperature is present only for some hours of the day and becomes normal for remaining hours, e.g., malaria, kala-azar, pyaemia, or septicemia

  2. Hectic or Septic: The temperature variation between peak and nadir is very large and exceeds 5°C,e.g., septicaemia, etc
  3. Pel Ebstein type: There is a regular alteration of recurrent bouts of fever and afebrile periods. The temperature may take 3 days to rise, remains high for 3 days and remits in 3 days, followed by apyrexia for 9 days seen in Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  4. Low Grade Fever: Temperature is present daily especially in the evening for several  days but does not exceed 37.8C at any time, e.g.,tuberculosis.

Causes of fever

  1. Infections: Bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, etc.
  2. Various skin inflammations: boils, or abscess
  3. Immunological diseases: lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, Kawasaki disease
  4. Tissue destruction which can occur in hemolysis, surgery, infarction etc
  5. Cancers, most commonly kidney cancer and leukemia and lymphomas
  6. Metabolic disorders: gout , porphyria, acidosis,dehydration.
  7. Traumatic: crush injury
  8. Physical agents: Heat stroke

Pathophysiology

Temperature is ultimately regulated in the hypothalamus. A trigger of the fever, called a pyrogen, causes a release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 then in turn acts on the hypothalamus, which generates a systemic response back to the rest of the body, causing heat-creating effects to match a new temperature level.

Use

Fever can aid in host defense. There are certainly some important immunological reactions that are sped up by temperature, and some pathogens with strict temperature preferences could be hindered. Fevers may be useful to some extent since they allow the body to reach high temperatures, causing an unbearable environment for some pathogens. White blood cells also rapidly proliferate due to the suitable environment and can also help fight off the harmful pathogens and microbes that invaded the body.

Fever has several important functions in the healing process:

  • Increased mobility of leukocytes
  • Enhanced leukocytes phagocytosis
  • Endotoxin effects decreased
  • Increased proliferation of T cells
  • Enhanced activity of interferon

Treatment

Fever may or may not be treated. Sometimes people may recover themselves. The ibuprofen is an effective antipyretic. Acetaminophen / paracetamol is also widely used.

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery

MBBS course consists 4½ years and 1 year of compulsory internship which makes it a total of 5½ years.The course is divided into 3 phases:-

(a) Phase-I(1 year)– consisting of Pre-clinical subjects i.e. Human Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry and introduction to Community Medicine.

(b) Phase-II(1½ years) consisting of para – clinical/clinical subjects.

The subjects are Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Forensic Medicine including Toxicology and part of Community Medicine.

With these subjects, clinical postings of Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Community Medicine start.

(c) Phase-III(2 years)-consisting of clinical subjects.

The subjects are community Medicine, Medicine, Anaesthesiology, Dermatology & Venereology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Ophthalmology, Orthopaedics, Otorhinolaryngology, Paediatrics, Psychiatry and Surgery

Internship(1 year)-In this year you will get posted in different departments on rotation basis which also comprises of 3 months rural posting.

ALL THE BEST to all the medical aspirants!!

9/11

I would like to dedicate this blog post to all those who lost their lives in the terrorist attacks and also to their families. Nine years back United States of America was shattered, when four American planes where hijacked. Two of them where crashed into the two towers of world trade center, third was crashed into the Pentagon and the last one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania.Both buildings of world trade center collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others.

There were a total of 2,996 deaths which include the 19 hijackers and 2,977 victims. 246 people died on the four planes, 2,606 in New York City in the towers and 125 at the Pentagon. All the deaths in the attacks were civilians except for 55 military personnel killed at the Pentagon.

The World Trade Center is now being rebuilt. Its construction started in September, 2006. The new World Trade Center (WTC) will build a brighter, more vibrant future for downtown New York with superior commercial space, a modernized and more convenient transportation system, and cultural and highly commemorative destinations.

The WTC plan includes Five new skyscrapers, National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center, World Trade Center Transportation Hub, Retail Complex and Performing Arts Center.

At the site of the two buildings, a memorial is to be build which will mark the absence of the buildings. The memorial consists of a park at street level with two recessed square pools located 30 feet below street level, fed by waterfalls along the walls. At the center of the pools are recessed squares into which the water flows. The names of the victims will be inscribed on parapets surrounding the pools at street level.

The National September 11 Memorial Museum will be located 70 feet below ground. An admission fee is under consideration. The museum will feature interactive exhibits that are designed to teach visitors about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and February 26, 1993. The largest asset of the museum will be the exposed slurry wall, which held back the Hudson River and remained standing after the attacks.

MAY THEIR SOULS REST IN PEACE!